Thursday, July 5, 2018

Renoir's Final Significant Step in Studies for The Bathers

We are privileged to present a singular unrecognized Pierre-Auguste 

Renoir signed pastel; we shall refer to as The Pastel, replete with classic color closest to the two iconic final Bathers in museums today. 

Renoir, created over 25  black and white Impressionist studies for the two iconic Bathers paintings, The Large Bathers in The Philadelphia Museum and The Variant Bathers in Cagnes-Sur-Mer Museum. The only color finished. The classical study is The Pastel here discovered and discussed.

Renoir's Final Significant Step in Studies for The Bathers

We are privileged to present a singular unrecognized Pierre-Auguste 

Renoir signed pastel; we shall refer to as The Pastel, replete with classic color closest to the two iconic final Bathers in museums today. 

Renoir, created over 25  black and white Impressionist studies for the two iconic Bathers paintings, The Large Bathers in The Philadelphia Museum and The Variant Bathers in Cagnes-Sur-Mer Museum. The only color finished. The classical study is The Pastel here discovered and discussed.


An investigation of the series of Renoir's Bathers studies, on the same special paper, for the Bathers, indicate The Pastel, is the final step for the famous sizeable experimental paintings, The Bathers.  A German art professor compiled the above layout, in 2017, indicating The Pastel is the closest to the two final paintings titled The Bathers, The Large Bathers at The Philadelphia Museum completed 1887. Pierre Auguste Renoir created The Pastel with opposed styles balancing each other in one composition for the first time in his oeuvre, this technique and style as was acknowledged, and discussed in his son’s book, My Father. In My Father, Jean Renoir’s biography of his father, he says Pierre Auguste Renoir would copy himself over and over to achieve perfection. 

All the other experimental drawing studies by Pierre-Auguste Renoir for The Bathers are left unfinished and became noticed the late 1940's, The Pastel I discovered is the only completed classical study for the Bathers and still not noticed. It is the only completed classical color study: something completely brand new in the 1880's, putting Impressionism in the background and classical figures in the foreground. It was the first time Renoir did it in crescendo, making the figures more explicit and finished as the drawing process progressed.  Pierre-Auguste Renoir was trying to mix fresco and sculpture in one painting for a new type of art here, and that is why The Pastel is very very flat.  The pastel material is in the gum not on top of the gum after the glass set on top of it for years. No one has disproven anything I have written here.

Before the paper test, in 1996, Mr. Francois Daulte has agreed, The Pastel is the only classic color finished study for the two final iconic paintings; one classical painting and one impressionist painting; both enormous successes, pivotal high points in Renoir's career.

A Separation

Black and white studies Renoir started out treating nature and women as the same, incongruous style then Renoir moved forward to separate women from nature by making them classical, delineated, in 18th-century colors to give a flat mute effect mimicking a fresco while the landscape is pure Impressionist light including the colors of the sky and sun. The women are like goddesses of the future and past still enjoying nature while a type of light only recently explored, is controlling the rest of their world.  In the final Bathers Paintings, the front left figure from The Pastel style remains, and the contrast between foreground and background, people, and landscape accomplished in The Pastel remain as a significant achievement in art history.

Friday, August 4, 2017

Quotes from books on Renoir that dovetails with the Renoir pastel study for bathers discovered

Why did Renoir use pastel?

One contemporary critic has explained Renoir's pastels: "If he frequently used that medium to depict those near and dear to him, it was because pastel, which combines color with line.

Why is this paper Renoir used special?

"But the worst part about it was that they made us draw on a kind of paper which we had to scrape in order to produce the whites.  I never could learn to use it properly. The editor-in-chief of La Vie Moderne was Bergerat.  Later, when Charpentier deserted it, my younger brother Edmond bought it out.  But the paper was in its last throes and it was not long before it died completely."*

page 41 Ambroise Vollard
RENOIR An Intimate Record.*
quoting RENOIR about paper used for Renoir Studies for the Bathers and the magazine La VIe Moderne

"for La Vie Moderne had had to be done on a special, grained paper, on which white was obtained by scraping, an awkward technique called "guillotage"

RENOIR Drawings by edited by John Rewald published by H. Bittner & Company New York 1946
ref; Renoir's early 1880's work, illustrations for his brother's stories

Why did Renoir draw like in the classical manner during early 1880’s?

"Under the influence of Italian art, which had attracted him during his journey to Italy in 1881, and with his eyes turned to Ingres, at one period he modified his mode of draughtsmanship and work, especially in his nudes.  He gave to his drawing more precision in line, and gave his nudes clearer contours and made a more rigid modelling.  During those years he produced in this manner some works easy to recognize and classify"**

RENOIR** by Theodore Duret translated 1937 Crown Publishers copyright page 67 last paragraph

"The most famous work of the Ingres period is the bathers, a large picture exhibited in 1887 with the subtitle "Essay in decorative painting."  "
"Begun in 1884, the picture elaborated over three years in many drawings and studies that show close attention to the tradition of the firmed contoured human body associated with Raphael and Ingres, rather than with artists he had especially admired in the previous decade(Titian, Velasquez,delacroix)"

Nature's workshop; Renoir's writing on the decorative arts*** by Robert L. Herbert copyright ***p 66 Herbert....discusses how much the work changed after 1881 (becoming the ingres period)

Why are are the colors muted in the pastel, not like we know is Renoir?

"In 1880 renoir left france for italy, and lived at rome and naples.  He was dazzled and astounded by Raphael's frescoes, especially the farnese palace, and by the delicious frescoes of Pompeii, which are still rated below their worth........what the frescoes of Rome and Naples taught renoir was that, with a limited range of tones, and a method whose effects were equally limited,---and from the point of view of the special effects that can be got from a medium there is at least as much difference between between fresco and oil painting as between a spinet and modern orchestra,---one can, nevertheless, produce really great works.  How?  By means of 'volumes' to be expressed by modelling."

"before this revelation, Renoir's canvases exquisite though they were, lacked weight."

I can see ghost outline of an arm, is this how Renoir worked?

Masters of Modern Art RENOIR**** by Francois Fosca, translation published 1924 by dodd, mead and company nyc
p. 26

"He prepares hardly any mixtures on his palette, which is covered with nothing but little, comma-shaped blobs of almost pure colour mixed with oil.  Little by little he makes the forms more precise: a few more touches...and you see emerge the coloured mist of the first stage gentle and rounded forms on which there shine gleams as of precious stones, and which are wrapped in golden, transparent shadows.*****
*****Masters of Modern Art RENOIR by Francois Fosca p. 44

Why did Renoir use his wife for the poses for the Bathers figures?

 "It so happened that Aline Charigot was not unbearable; that the proportions of her features and body accorded with the canons Renoir had formulated; the her slightly almond-shaped eyes sent the impressions they received to a well-balanced brain; that she had a light step---"she could walk on grass without hurting it"; ......."

"He like women who had a tendency to grow fat, whereas men, he thought, shoul be lean.  He liked small noses more than large ones, and he made no secret of his preferences for wide mouths, with full, but not thick, lips; small teeth; light complexions; and blond hair.  "Pouting lips indicate affection; thin lips, suspicion."  Once he had drawn up these rules, emphasizing the importance of dividing the face, at the line of the eyes, my father would add: After that you have to follow your instinct." "

RENOIR My Father by Jean Renoir p. 218 preferences, instinct implied spontaneity

Renoir wrote the introductory to this book on classical painting called "Italian painting in the 14th and 15th Centuries".

Thursday, February 27, 2014

The following paragraphs is taken from the book "The French Drawings" which dovtails with the newly discovered "Renoir's Pastel Study for the Bathers" 1883-1885.

The large-format drawing is the most complete of the numerous preparatory studies for the well known painting, Les Grandes Baigneuses, which is a part of the Carroll S. Tyson collection in Philadelphia (Drucker, no. 88, pl III}.  Through represented without the landscape background, the three main figures, are arranged in the same manner as in the final work.  Only the attitude of the central figure is somewhat different in the painting.

Renoir begain the canvas as he returned from italy in 1882.  The idea was suggested to him by Girardon's Bain des Nymphs. a bas relief in the park of Versalles. He carefully laid out the work, with endless preparatory drawings andtracing, with which to reline the painting., in order to obatain well defined contours (J. Rewald pls. 32 to 43).  Les Grandes Baigneuses was 1885 and shown in the 1887 Salon.  it represents the height of Renoir's  "Ingresque"  period.  Detached from impressionism, he turned to the art of the 18th Century for his subjects, and to the Raphel and  Ingres for his thin smooth textures subject to linear harmony.

The drawing reproduced bears evidence to Renoir's period discovery of the Great Italian Masters.  this impressive work is a clear indication of his main preoccupations at the time: out lining forms heavily to make them stand out against a landscape background, and immobilizing them in a fixed attitudes. G. M.

Bibliography P. Jamont Renoir, in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, December 1923, pp. 332-336;
J; Meir-Graefe. Renoir, Munich, 1929, repr. .190.
M. Drucker, Renoir, Paris, 1944, pp69-73'
J. Rewald, Renoir Drawings, new york, 1946, no. 40, pl. 40;
J, Leymarie, Renoir, Paris, 1949, no. 12, pl12

Please note there are two figures in the newly discovered Renoir pastel, not three.

Found a great movie on the bathers painting. note the color of the bodies of front two models in final painting in the opening of the movie are identical in color to the pastel study.

The movie link on the Great Bathers by Renoir above

Monday, October 19, 2009


Update 2012 Dr. George Goldner of the Metropolitan Museum of Art said the Renoir is a "pastel", not a print or a photo

Update 11/2010: EMSL Analytical, Inc. has dated the title plaque (shown below). The plaque, has been dated around 1930, which was attached to the framing of the Renoir Pastel painting when discovered. No one knew of Renoir's studies in 1930 except the owners of them.

Note: A lecture is being given by the International Foundation for Art Research concerning framing evidence and what it can tell us about the history of the artwork. follow this link:



"Renoir was the last of the classical painters"
Renoir biographer

Renoir was very quick and could copy his porcelain subjects very quickly but
Renoir lost his porcelain painting job to a new invention of manufactured printing of porcelain subjects. This caused Renoir to become a visual artist, a painter of paintings, sculpture and drawings. In fact his boss told Renoir he should become an artist.

The Evidence is as follows:
  1. The only colored finished pastel watercolor study for front two bathers, the faces are identical of Renoir wife drawn with thousands of spontaneous lines.
  2. Title Plaque dated 1930
  3. Owners label found on back of framing dated 1930
  4. Restoration found on edge in black dated around 1930.
  5. All pigments are of the period of 1880 or earlier except for black on edge.
  6. Wolf family do not deny ownership of the painting.
  7. French Paper tested and dated 1878, discovered Renoir's machine made paper he used and was the only owner. The French paper Renoir used has so many characteristics in it, over 10 precise machine made, and the technique to make the paper invented by the French has been lost.
  8. No authority has proven any of the information listed in this blog to be false.
  9. I"m proud the Dutch Renoir paper report is so precise many art people and scientist such as McCrone Institute, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Sotheby's Auction House could not dispute the report. In fact, the Renoir experts use the The Dutch Renoir pastel paper report commissioned by me, to help authenticate Renoir drawings. To see the report go to
This pastel drawing is a newly discovered early nude pastel study for the Pierre Auguste Renoir's painting THE GREAT BATHERS, 1883-1887. This Renoir study is from a series of approximately 30 drawings wherein Renoir worked out issues of composition, light, shading, volume, flatness, scale and subject matter. The authenticity of the drawing was researched and confirmed by a Dutch analysis and investigation of the unique French unique glossy machine coated paper used by Renoir; who had worked as a porcelain painter, prior to becoming an artist.

Pastel Maquette Study For the Bathers 1883-84
53 cm. x 68cm.

Please note: faces and bodies are painted identically in pastel spontaneously.
For those who do not know the word Maquette go to :

The subject of the pastel is Aline Charigot, his new bride, posing in opposing positions as happy Venuses, and with a ghost image of her arm, in a third position, to the right. Cropping lines do not intersect in identical locations. The pastel above is in color and finished. The picture below is unfinished and is done in black and white tones.

Large Bathers Study 1884-1887
Orsay Museum
108 x 162cm.
Please note all of the Bather's studies were done on one roll of machine made paper.

The Great Bathers 1884-1887
Philadelphia Museum of Art
115 x 170cm.

Variations of the Bathers 1884-1903
Massena Museum, Nice.
112 x 166cm

Splashing Figure Third Girl R (study for the Bathers),
c 1884-1885,
Chalk with brush on paper laid down on canvas,
Art Institute of Chicago
Whole drawing showing shading and classical lines for the 3rd model right for the final classical painting.
98.4cm. x 64.13cm

This image of the 3rd girl right has been cropped from Orsay drawing for demonstration purposes only showing what Renoir copied. The whole image is shown above.

Detail of crayon study in the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn. This image of a third girl represents the development of the hand in the ghost image of the original color pastel study.

The following is about the line going through the hands of pastel. I have found this line in the following image.

Renoir would sometimes have lines going through the exterminates as seen in the pastel and the above close up image of the study for the third girl right. If you look close you can see this line going through the model's thigh below the hands and then the same line extends with pencil. I do not know the reasons for these crop lines.

Renoir is known to copy over and over the same lines but each time there was something different in his drawings. He was known to trace on the paper and canvas. Enlarging images was also common for Renoir being a graphic artist besides a porcelain painter. Renoir worked for a art graphic magazine where his brother Edmund worked as editor and this is where he got this special grained paper called "guillotage". This is the first time he could experiment on this one roll of paper during 1880 being poor and not able to afford paper.

The following is the plaque and company label that was attached to the framing of the pastel.

From the typeface of the label we can say this is also from the 1930's. As is the plaque above been dated scientifically 1930. In 1930, no one knew of Renoir bather studies , except the owners of the studies, themselves. The studies were never published until 1950.

Pursuit of Scientific Evidence

Anytime someone wants to see any correspondence from McCrone Associates concerning testing the Renoir pastel for Renoir research purposes is welcome to do so by contacting me. In May 200o Dr. Walter McCrone came to my house after the McCrone report was written two different times and admitted McCrone Associates left out important information in the McCrone Report.

Anytime someone wants to see any correspondence from McCrone Associates concerning testing the Renoir pastel for Renoir research purposes is welcome to do so by contacting me. In May 200o Dr. Walter McCrone came to my house after the McCrone report was written two different times and admitted McCrone Associates left out important information in the McCrone Report.

For reasons I do not understand is McCrone Associates did not use an electron microscope on the paper. It is too disappointing I did not have this paper information McCrone Associates promised before I went to the Wildensteins. Despite not having this information McCrone Associates pigment analysis and data sheet discovered restoration. Without them the Renoir would not have been discovered. Please note it took many hours studying the McCrone data to find a pigment pattern in the data after Dr. McCrone told me to check the data and study it. I knew something had to explain the black around edge and it was luck Dr. McCrone told me to study the data.

McCrone Associates pigment and paper data sheet is showing a second different black was added around 1930 to the edges, all other pigments in the center of the pastel and paper tested are of the period of 1880 or earlier. This discovered spot damage and storage damage, no one knew.
Luckily two years later, going to Europe, a report was completed in December of 2002.
For the full Dutch 30 page Renoir paper report on the paper the pastel is on go to:

The Dutch Renoir paper report discovery by Adriaan Kardinaal and Dr. Henk Porck, Amsterdam, is so precise that Dr. Margaret Peggy Ellis of New York University and International Foundation for Art Research can not dispute the great art discovery.

In a letter
dated 2008, IFAR referees me to Wildenstein Institute after reviewing the Dutch Renoir paper report and they thanked me for a copy of the report for their committee.

It is too disappointing I did not have this paper information McCrone Associates promised but never delivered before I went to the Wildensteins.

After a 6 months of researching into paper experts, I was suggested by the University of Maine to contact the INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PAPER HISTORIANS. I was than referred to Dr Henk Porck who has made great discoveries to preserve books and other paper discoveries. Dr Porck's reply to my request was that he would help and so he and Mr.
Adriaan Kardinaal made a team of 20 people in 2002 to do the testing and research. It took one year to finish the report. The
the University of Maine and INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PAPER HISTORIANS help save the Renoir. I will always be grateful for their help to find a person who would help.

The pastel was purchased at an antique show in April 3, 1993. But the paper the pastel is on that Renoir used was not investigated until 2002, years after correspondence with the Renoir expert, Fran├žois Daulte from 1993-1997, and after the request of the Wildenstein Institute -- who had wisely and rightly requested the prior tests in 1999 using the top art scientist in world. One last note about the paper discovery in 2002: no great institute, great museum, paper scientist or Renoir expert in the world has disputed the paper report. The paper Renoir used for his studies was unique in that it was only manufactured once on 19th century machine destroyed before 1890. Please note it took years to find the people who were able to test the paper and I am grateful that it was done.

One of the short best written sites about Renoir's ideas is:

I also think three of the best written books about Renoir are: Renoir Painter of Happiness by Gilles Neret, published by Taschen 2001; and Renoir My Father by Jean Renoir and Renoir by Nicholas Wadley.

People ask how can you tell a print from an original work of art?
The answer is that there are books how to identify prints and original works of art in libraries, you can go to a print dealer or art dealer and they will help and explain, art conservator, you can google the question finding results that will tell you how to identify a print and even what kind of print, etching, lithograph, etc. You can have it tested scientifically. Try to study the artist too, this will help too. If someone says print without showing proof, go to someone else who is an expert in his field. If any person tells you will never know for sure if it's a print or not, you can be sure that subjective statement is false and no honest expert will ever tell you that.

For more detailed photos of the pastel study go to

The above letter was written by Francois Daulte, the Renoir expert in 1996 responding to my letter asking him where is the classical finished study for front two models. In Mr. Dalute's letter, he said what I wrote was precise information for the Renoir pastel and one day he would come see the drawing. Sadly he died a few years after this letter. Mr. Daulte wrote me 6 times over the period from 1994 to 1997 always attributing the pastel to Renor. Mr Daulte help me understand what the pastel was all about during those years of letter writng.

Letter from the Bernheim Jeune gallery, signed by Guy-Patrice Dauberville, attributing PASTEL STUDY FOR THE GREAT BATHERS to PIERRE AUGUSTE RENOIR. Note: The letter above was correctly and expertly written before the discovery of Renoir's paper with testing in 2002.

After photographing art for the biggest name artists, collectors, auction houses, etc. for 35 years and having a lost work of art authenticated by the artist family at Sotheby's auction house, I can tell you without a doubt that I believe the Renoir pastel to be a very important study that changed the style Renoir's nudes because this is the logical and normal way Renoir would have planned the creation of his masterpiece, The Bathers. Renoir studied extensively the old masters and how frescoes were done. This is how the pastel was done on a flat plane. He studied in Italy frescoes and even repaired some while traveling though Italy. This is how the pastel was done on a flat plane as if it was painted as a fresco. Please note: Renoir was trained as a porcelain painter so he knew how to draw using only two or three thin layers of pigment to achieve the pastel study for the Bathers. Also the evidence cited in this blog completely refutes those that have attempted to dismiss the signed Renoir pastel study as a print, etching photo, copy with no proof. This tells me that what I have is a real Renoir pastel.

In addition friends in France have spoken to the previous owner's family in 1994 and 2009, the Wolf daughter's, several times and they claim they do not recall owning the pastel and the mother had stated they owned a pastel Renoir. Ms. Wolf also stated it was sold in 1965 and was stored in Florida. The dealer who sold the pastel to me came from there. The dealer did not know what he had. There is evidence of storage from tests and visual inspection of framing and glass.

I have many letters from reputable art dealers as well as reports from paper conservators and art conservators’ stating this is a pastel on special paper of the period of 1880.

Joel Oppenheimer paper report on stating Renoir pastel

Caroline Corrigan, well known art restorer in Paris, stating the pastel from Renoir, no print found, pastel, smoothed, pencil for hair and eyes with antique backing residue.

The reason the paper of Renoir was never studied prior to the 1990's is because most of the Renoir drawings are behind glass in museums and the special scientific instruments required to measure the organic materials in art materials were not available until the early 1990's. These measurements are so precise that they are able identify the characteristics of Renoir’s unique paper. The Dutch scientists performed scientific measurements on Renoir’s pastel unique paper in 2002. This information can be verified by the Fogg museum or any great museum. The reason I went ahead to have the drawing tested was when the Fogg allowed me to see their Bather study I saw the same unique creases found under the pastel drawing These creases seen in all the Bathers studies were made on only one side of the paper, the side the special grain is on.
The reverse side of the paper is felt like. These creases were created by the machine process.

When you found the pastel the experts you consulted could not believe what you had found. And now that there is sufficient evidence to overcome their doubts. I am hoping the experts are willing to look at the new evidence and give a response as they should since the Fogg museum and Wildenstein suggested to me to test the pastel in 1999. I never even knew you could test a work of art and now all this positive information about something no Renoir expert knew about scientifically. There is one last reason the experts and museums should look at this again is art was taken from Renoir's house before he died and was never documented. The paper discovery is so precise that if you measure the components of paper of other Renoir drawing studies, the measurements will be the same numbers found in the testing of the paper the pastel I found is on.

This site is for historical purposes only.
Go to:
Last note, the reason this Renoir pastel study is not authenticated is because it has become personal and or that it will affect the value of other Renoirs once authenticated, despite the evidence in this blog is 100% true. I really do not know why this painting is not authenticated, I have never received an official letter from any Renoir expert as to why after the tests were done and they were the ones who asked me to do so.